Thursday, January 12, 2017

The High Bridge and the Park

High Bridge, New York c. 1880
Tinted Stereoview by the New York Stereoscopic Co.

Welcome to The High Bridge -- Its Past, Present & Future website.  This site connects all interested parties on exciting developments associated with The High Bridge, Highbridge Park, and the immediately surrounding area.

We are in the process of sprucing up our site and making it more presentable.  As most of you already know, the High Bridge was reopened on June 9, 2015 after about 45 years of having been closed and years of planning and reconstruction.  The adjacent Highbridge Park is also undergoing extensive refurbishment as part of the NYCPlan 2030, and the immediate neighborhood near the Park, particularly along Amsterdam and Edgecombe avenues is starting to experience a renaissance with building renovations and new commercial ventures.
With this in mind, we are now shifting gears away from the reconstruction of The High Bridge to the other improvements that will be forthcoming.  We also recognize that there will be more visitors to the bridge, the Highbridge Park, and the surrounding areas, so we will be providing more information for those who do not have familiarity with the area and its attractions. 
At present the public funding for the improvements and redevelopment effort for the Bridge and the Park have exceeded $130 Million. On Jan. 11, 2013 Mayor Michael Bloomberg broke ground on the construction phase of the plan for the redevelopment of the High Bridge and the cost of reopening the bridge has been publicized at $61.8 Million. Just in 2016, $30 Million of additional funds have been allocated to Highbridge Park by Mayor De Blasio as part of the Anchor Park initiative.

On June 9, 2015, the official reopening ceremony of the High Bridge occurred. (Please see the specific posts for this event).  On July 25, 2015 the High Bridge Festival celebrating the reopening of the High Bridge occurred.

There are many other activities progressing simultaneously with the redevelopment of the High Bridge. This web site focuses on the developments in and immediately adjacent to The High Bridge and Highbridge Park.  Please make sure to scroll down to see previous posts on new and exciting developments.

It is our belief that with this site we can foster an appreciation of the past, an understanding of the present and a catalyst for the development of the future needs of this immediate area.

Hopefully, we will find common ground to dramatically improve the buildings, the retail establishments and the quality of life in such a way as to compliment the redevelopment effort associated with the High Bridge and High Bridge Park and make this area a destination for more of the millions of residents of New York City and some of the more than tens of millions of visitors who come to New York City each year.

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Sept 6, 1879

Please contact us and let us know if you have any interests in participating as a contributor, volunteer, or merely to coordinate with your community organization, or even if you are just an interested neighborhood resident. If you want to contribute to the site with any comments please feel free to do so.

Organizationally, we have been adding information to each page as it is appropriate.  You should return to pages on a regular and frequent basis to catch up on latest developments on each topic.  We have also provided for reader feedback at the bottom of each topic.

There are almost 200 posts with information and pictures on all sorts of topics. Information about the history of the High Bridge and the building of the aqueduct, articles about what is going on right now, and articles about the future changes that we all hope will come to the High Bridge, the park, and the surrounding neighborhoods. Please click on the Area of Interest on the right and a whole host of topics will present themselves. Or, you may scroll through the archive of articles on the right to find and article of interest to you. Or, you may also search by keyword in the box provided at the right above the archive listings. Or, you may just scroll down and look at the articles in chronological order going backward in time.

 If you are experiencing any difficulty using our site please let us know.

Please subscribe to our newsletter.

last modified 7/28/2015

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Completion of Croton Aqueduct Celebrated October 14, 1842

Here is a historical silk ribbon commemorating the completion of the Croton Aqueduct on October 14, 1842.  The ribbon tells the complete history of the project -- recommended in 1832 by Col. DeWitt Clinton; in 1833 the NY State Legislature began surveys; there are 110 miles of pipes;  the cost was 12 million dollars;  Robert Morris was the Mayor of NYC at the time of completion.  The whole history is printed on the ribbon.  This year is the 175th anniversary of the completion of the aqueduct.   The water crossing the Harlem River in 1842 passed through a siphon tube below the water.  However, it wasn't until July 4, 1848 that the High Bridge was completed, allowing shipping and navigation on the river.  The ribbon measures 3" x 7.75".

Monday, January 9, 2017

Computerworld Runs Article on Soofa Benches in Highbridge Park

The Soofa Smart Park Bench
Matt Hamblen, Senior Editor at Computerworld, has written an interesting article on  Hi Tech in New York City.  Among the items he writes about he highlights the new Soofa Smart Park Benches that have been installed in Highbridge Park in Washington Heights.   This is a follow up post to the one we had last year when it was first announced that the City was participating in the experiment.
One of the more charming uses of smart tech in New York is being tested with several park benches installed in Highbridge Park at 175th St. and Amsterdam Ave. in Washington Heights.  The solar-powered benches, designed by Soofa, a startup with connections to the Mit Media Lab, allow park visitors to charge a smartphone or other device while resting, socializing or sunbathing.

The smart benches also allow park officials to count Wi-Fi-enabled devices as they pass by the bench, which allows them to estimate foot traffic and in turn determine if more security or trash removal might be needed in an area of a park.

Assuaging citizen concerns, the Soofa pilot incorporates a set of "internet of things guidelines" created by the city which govern privacy and security concerns for the new devices.

Thursday, January 5, 2017

Report Back Meeting on Use of Highbridge Park Anchor Park Funding

According to Jenifer Hoppa, Northern Manhattan Parks AdministratorNYC Parks

The next Community Report Back Meeting for the Highbridge Anchor Park Project will be on Tuesday January 31, at 6:30 p.m. at the Highbridge Recreation Center. At the meeting participants can review the public input that has been received about improving the park and comment on preliminary master plan recommendations for the park. 

What has happened so far?
The 130-acre Highbridge Park was selected as one of five parks in the city to receive $30 million in improvements through Mayor de Blasio’s Anchor Parks program, which is part of NYC Parks Commissioner Mitchell Silver’s Framework for an Equitable Future – a commitment to create thriving public spaces for all New Yorkers.

On November 28th, a Visioning Meeting was convened at the Highbridge Recreation Center where people from the community gathered to share their ideas, hopes and concerns about the future of the park. Following the Visioning Meeting NYC Parks solicited additional input from people who were unable to attend the meeting on November 28th. 

The NYC Parks design team has compiled and analyzed the ideas, identifying which ones appeared to be the most popular and fit within the scope of a capital master plan.  Among these ideas were:
·         Increasing access and connectivity
·         Enhancing park maintenance and amenities
·         Strengthening gathering places
·         More sports opportunities
·         Improving play spaces, programming and placemaking opportunities
·         Adding lighting

What will happen next?
The Community Report Back meeting is the opportunity for the community to learn more about the top concerns and priorities developed up till now and how these are being incorporated into the planning process and to accommodate them into the proposed park master plan.  You are invited to provide feedback on the initial recommendations. Continued community involvement and engagement is essential in planning for Highbridge Park’s future. Please save this date and attend the meeting and express your ideas.

Event details
Date: Tuesday, January 31, 2017
Location: Highbridge Recreation Center, 2301 Amsterdam Ave. @ W 173rd Street
Time: 6:30 p.m. – 8:00 p.m.
Kids are welcome to attend and contribute ideas.
Light refreshments will be provided.
Spanish translators will be present.
The site is accessible for people with disabilities.
Please tell your friends, family and colleagues about this meeting.

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Shape Up NYC's Fitness Party at Highbridge Park Jan 12, 2017

NYC Parks & Rec Department is sponsoring a FREE Fitness Party at the Recreation Center in Highbridge Park on January 12, 2017 at 6 PM.

Highbridge Recreation Center
2301 Amsterdam Avenue (173rd St.)
New York, NY 10033

Participants will engage in free fitness class demos - Zumba, Kickboxing, Dance Fitness and more! 
Light refreshments will be served. There will be a few special raffles and plenty of giveaways throughout the night.
Hope you can make it there!
For reservations please click here.

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Exterior Street -- Bronx

Irma and Paul Milstein Division of United States History, Local History and Genealogy, The New York Public Library. "Exterior Street - Highbridge" The New York Public Library Digital Collections. 1887 - 1986.
This little known street in the Bronx runs along the Harlem River. In this picture from 1887 you can clearly see the street right near the water with the Washington Bridge in the foreground and the High Bridge in the background.

In the map below you can clearly see its location right at the river's edge as it passes under the High Bridge.

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

River Walk Scheduled for December 18

Information on this next Sunday's river walk by Paul Kittas of Heights Historic Tours is a bit scant, but it appears that in addition to a walk there will be a talk.  The talk will start at 10:50am, 10 minutes before the walk starts.  There is no registration required and the tour is free to attendees. The walk is over a mile long on level ground, so you won't need your mountaineering boots for this one.  The expected duration of the walk/talk is unknown.  It is not known if there are any limitations on the number of participants that can go on the tour. There are no restroom facilities either at the meeting location, along the route of the tour, or at the point of termination.  If you want more specific information it is suggested that you contact Paul Kittas directly at 646 318 5906.

Sunday, December 4, 2016

Report on the Visioning Meeting on the Highbridge Park on November 28

This past Monday, on  November 28, at 6:30 p.m. NYC Parks and our elected officials  hosted a Community Visioning Session at Highbridge Recreation Center (173rd St. & Amsterdam Ave.) for Highbridge Park. The purpose was to share ideas, concerns and hopes for this 130-acre park stretching from West 155th Street up to Dyckman Street in northern Manhattan.  The meeting had over a hundred attendees and officials were ecstatic to see so many different people representing such diverse parts of the community at the meeting.  

Highbridge Park is one of only five parks in the city selected to receive $30 million in improvements through Mayor de Blasio’s Anchor Parks program, which is part of NYC Parks Commissioner Mitchell Silver’s Framework for an Equitable Future – a commitment to create thriving public spaces for all New Yorkers.   The Anchor Parks program is an idea of making the older, larger parks in New York City, and revitalizing them as major spaces for their respective communities. 
There are three stages for this process:  Design, Procurement, and Construction.  In total, it will take several years until we see the end product for Highbridge. The last major renovation for Highbridge took place in 2013 as part of an upland forest restoration program.  This program was especially important for Highbridge, which has an ecology that cannot be found in any other part of New York City.  

At the meeting, there were about 15 tables with about 7-10 people at each one,  and each table came along with a massive picture map of Highbridge to aid people in the input they would have for the meeting.  Additionally, there were two representatives at each table from the Parks Department who were there to act as guides and answer questions.  After going through some slides about the history of the park and some general ideas for inspiration, each table was asked to spent about half an hour coming up with ideas about what they would like to see done in this capital project cycle, and each table would then vote on their top three improvements and additions that they would like to see done.  After that, one person from each table presented their discussion and ideas to the whole auditorium of people. 

The following points represent the bulk of ideas that were mentioned by the attendees:

  •  Adding lighting throughout the park
  •  Installing water fountains
  •  Adding comfort stations (bathrooms) 
  •  Updating playgrounds and adding outdoor fitness equipment for adults
  •  Improving pathways and increasing connectivity between the northern and southern ends of         the park
  •  Adding benches
  •  Improving access to natural areas/trails, and fixing staircases
  • Adding wayfinding signage in multiple languages
  • Making park entrances that are more welcoming with greeting, gardens, and landscaping
Now the landscape architects are tasked with trying to accommodate as many of these suggestions as possible, within the footprint of the park and the project budget, in the proposed design.
Other proposals, such as improving maintenance and security, and increased publicity for public programming, will have to be addressed separately since they are outside the scope of a capital project. There will be Community Report Back Meeting in early 2017.  

If you were unable to attend the meeting or you have some additional thoughts you’re in luck! You can still submit your ideas online here ( through December 12, 2016.   Click the green “Share Your Thoughts” button on the bottom left side of the page.
NYC Parks & Rec wants to hear from as many Highbridge Park users as possible. With your help, we can make sure that everyone has a chance to contribute to this effort. Please tell your friends, family and colleagues about this online form.

Please stay tuned for more details.  

Ben Kohanim

Saturday, November 19, 2016

When the Ice Age Came to Washington Heights -- The Washington Heights Ice Corporation -- and the Palais de Glace

Washington Heights Ice Corporation under construction,
W. 168th Street and Jumel Place, New York City, September 22, 1917.
Courtesy of the New York Historical Society. Rights reserved.
William Davis Hassler, photographer.
The Ice Age came to Washington Heights in the very early part of the 20th century.  There are two notable companies related to the newly developed refrigeration industry that came with the electrification of New York. They were both located right near Highbridge Park.  While both produced ice, they were very different types of establishments.

The Washington Heights Ice Corporation -- 168th Street and Jumel Place

As we have reported earlier, in a post about Dorman L Ormsby, the grandson of the founder of the Dorman L. Ormsby Soda Co., Dorman L. Ormsby III sold the bottling company in 1905. Then, in 1907, Dorman L. Ormsby III shot and killed the new owner of the establishment, Frederick Wehmann

By 1917, at the very site of the former location of Ormsby's Mineral Water Company, a new building was under construction.  The Washington Heights Ice Corporation was building a large facility to produce artificial ice.

Until the early 1900s almost all ice used in New York City, as well as all other colder climates around the world, was obtained from natural ice harvested in the wintertime from frozen fresh water sources (in the case of New York City this was the Hudson River and the lakes in the Catskill Mountain area). Ice harvested from these sources in the winter was then stored in special ice houses, some along the Hudson River, which were very well insulated and permitted the ice to be used throughout the rest of the next spring, summer and fall seasons. The Knickerbocker Ice Company, founded by John J. Felter, John G. Perry, and Edward Felter in 1831, was one of these companies. In years when there was not much natural ice harvested the cost of ice would skyrocket, and, in turn, this would cause food products that needed refrigeration for preservation to increase in price to the consumer.  With the advent of electrical power distribution in New York City it was then possible to produce ice artificially with refrigeration equipment.

During World War I, (1917) in an attempt to make sure there was a plentiful supply of ice for refrigerated food products the State of New York through the Office of the Ice Comptroller, fixed the price of artificial ice at $4.40 a ton.  During the summer of 1918, the amount of natural ice production was high due to the preceding cold winter,  The Washington Heights Ice Corporation, desiring to sell ice and make a profit on their recent investment for the facility they built in 1917, took the Ice Comptroller to task and started selling ice at $3.00 a ton.  In turn, the Ice Comptroller revoked the manufacturing license of the company. The Washington Heights Ice Corporation took the Ice Comptroller to court to force him to restore their license and thereby allow them to sell the ice at the lower price.

In 1919 the court ruled that the Ice Comptroller acted without authority and therefore void and dismissed the summons against the firm.  The Ice Comptroller, Benjamin Odell, who had since become the Governor of New York State subsequently signed a bill abolishing the Office of the Ice Comptroller.

Even with the price controls removed, both the artificial and natural ice production industries were to be short lived.  With the advent of electric powered refrigerators the need for ice in homes and businesses diminished tremendously.  It is not known when the Washington Heights Ice Corporation ceased producing ice.

The Palais de Glace (Ice Palace)   --  500 W. 181st Street.

We are not sure of the exact date the 181st Street Ice Palace rink opened, but it was in the 1910s (the earliest reference I could find was for 1916) and it was a big success. It was located at the southwest corner of 181st Street and Amsterdam Ave. (this location was subsequently occupied by a gas station and a White Castle diner, then in the 1970s the White Castle was demolished and the Shell Gasoline station expanded to the entire block from 180th to 181st St. facing Amsterdam Ave.). The rink was modelled after the famous Palais de Glace on the Champs-Élysées in Paris and the Palais de Glace in Buenos Aires Argentina. Not only did the rink have electrical refrigeration equipment to make the ice, but it also had a special vehicle constructed to "scrape" the ice smooth.

The Ice Scraping machine at the 181st Street Ice Palace
A rebuilt Ford with an electric motor, a specially fitted blade for scraping
and a 70 foot extension cord coming from the rafters
From the Edison Monthly, Edison Electric Company, January 1922.

Columbia University used the ice rink for their hockey team practice and games, and the American Olympic team also used the rink in preparation for the first winter sports at the 1920 Summer Olympics and for the first Winter Olympics Games of 1924 in Chamonix in the French Alps. There is no reference to the Ice Palace after 1925.

Tuesday, November 15, 2016

ALBERT KRUMENAKER, Beer Bottler, 512 & 514 W. 166th St., N.Y.

We have found yet another bottle from an establishment within one block of Highbridge Park and close to the other two bottles we have already reported on here (Adolf Linser, Pharmacy & Dorman Ormsby, Brewer).  All three bottles were from approximately the same time period from just about the end of the 19th century through the very beginning of the 20th century -- well over one hundred years ago!

This bottle is a 9 1/4 inch high clear glass beer bottle.  It is embossed on the front of the bottle - ALBERT KRUMENAKER (arched), REGISTERED, KA monogram. TRADE MARK, heart and vines motif, 512 & 514 W 166th ST., N.Y. Embossed on reverse side of bottle above base rim ( heel)  -    B & M S CO. Embossed on bottom of bottle - II

Albert Krumenaker was the son of Peter Krumenaker (b. Milhausen, Germany) and Magdalena "Helen" Herscher (b. Mulhouse, Alsace Lorraine, France [before the Franco Prussian War of 1871, thereafter part of Germany])

1864  Albert Krumenaker birth (b. Dec. 1, 1864), Milhausen, Germany - d. Aug 6, 1927, New York).  

View of driver and passenger in Gramm-Logan truck owned by George Ehret, brewer. Sign on side of truck reads: "George Ehret's, New York, lager beer, bottled by Albert Krumenaker, 508-514 W. 166th St., telephone 69 Audubon."  with permission Detroit Public Library

The building in this picture behind the truck is that of the Krumenaker Bottling Co. 506-512 W. 166th St.  The apartment above the bottling company was where the the Krumenaker's lived.      The building to the left behind the bottling company is 2134 Amsterdam Ave. which was built in 1910.
1884  Albert emigrates to the United States at the age of 20. Upon arriving in New York had no trade and did not speak English.  

He was initially employed by the Harlem Bottling Company where he worked for four years.

1888  Albert starts his own bottling company on 115th Street and Amsterdam Ave. He bottled beer for a brewery called the Hell Gate Brewery, owned by George Ehret.  After a fire in 1880 at Ehret's brewery in the Yorkville section of Manhattan, Ehret relied heavily upon other companies to do the bottling for his beer.  Krumenaker was one of the bottlers he relied upon.  Initially, he was producing five half barrels per day. 

There is a good biography of George Ehret and his successful brewing company in History Of German Immigration In The United States: And Successful German-Americans And Their Descendants, by George Von Skal, 1910, and also in a New York Times article from 2005.

1890 Albert married Katherine, "Kattie"(nee Bergen) (b. Jan. 1864, Germany - d. Jul. 1904, New York).  Albert, Jr. (b. Sept. 1890, New York - d. Jan. 1949, New Hampshire) born later in the year.  By this time, Albert was processing 75 half barrels a day, had three wagons, and three employees.

1893 Krumenaker moves his bottling company and his family to W. 166th St. and Amsterdam Ave.  It was at this time that he had 15 employees and 15 wagons.

1894 The Krumenaker's second son, Peter Peter (b. Sept. 1894, New York), is born.

1898 Trow's Business Directory. Albert Krumenaker, bottler 512 W. 166th St. 

1900 US Census.  Krumenaker Bottlers, 512 W. 166th St. NY, NY Beer Bottling Establishment, Albert with wife Kattie and two children: Albert and Peter.

Excerpt from "Documents of the Assembly of the State of New York, Volume 29, for the year 1901.

"Mr. Moss -- Officer Joseph O'Brien was tried before Commissioner Hess.  The specification upon which the officer was tried was as follows:  "Said patrolman Joseph O'Brien was absent from the post and was in the beer bottling establishment of Albert Krumenaker at 512 and 514 West 166th St. at 10 pm, November 30, 1898, during his tour of patrol duty; and while in said place did assault said Albert Krumenaker with his club, striking him on the head, and causing a severe scalp wound."  Captain William F. Kirchner testified that being called on by Mrs. Krumenaker and being told that her husband had been assaulted by an officer, he went to the place of business of the gentleman and found Mr. Krumenaker sitting in the office entirely covered with blood and asked him how it happened.  He said:  "Officer O'Brien came into his place and got some beer and when requested to leave the place so he could retire he got into an altercation and assaulted him with his club."  The officer admitted that he went in there; left his place and went in there.  Mrs. Krumenaker testified that she was in bed and she heard her husband screaming for help.  She jumped out of bed and ran down stairs and found her husband lying on the floor and the officer over him.  "He was not striking him; he had him down.  I screamed for help and Mr Gudlich heard me and came in and helped me pull him out."  Mr. Gunlich corroborated that.  That, sir, was assault in the first or second degree; certainly a felony.  He was found guilty and fined thirty days' pay."

1904 July 30, Katherine dies in New York, age 40.

At the height of his business Albert Krumenaker had 96 employees and 65 wagons and processed 600 half barrels a day.

1905 NYS Census shows Albert with two children, no wife.

An interesting and provocative article in Harper's Weekly, on Feb 3, 1906, "The Krumenaker Papers ." indicates that Albert, Sr. was a widower and actively courting Emma Huber as early as August 27, 1905.  Albert got cold feet about the engagement and Emma sued him for $25,000 for a broken heart after he called off the marriage.

1910 US Census shows Albert is married to, second wife, Marie (b. 1864, Germany), Albert still has same two children at the same address on 166th St. Additionally it shows that Albert, Sr. is now a naturalized citizen.  

In a supplement to the History Of German Immigration In The United States: And Successful German-Americans And Their Descendants, by George Von Skal, Albert Krumenaker was also included:
Albert Krumenaker, Sr.

1914 Trow's Business Directory shows Albert, Sr. still at 512 W. 166th St. as a "bottler."

1915 NYS Census 
Albert, Sr. lives at 504 W. 166th St. NY NY Albert, Sr.  Did Albert, Sr. buy the building east of the bottling operation? Or, maybe he expanded the operations and converted his old living quarters to commercial space? Additional investigation seems to support the theory that there is no address of "504 W. 166th St."  This must have been a census taker error of some sort.  The building to the east of the Krumenaker operations is 2134 Amsterdam Ave.
Albert, Jr. (age 25) lives at 2224 Audubon Ave with Mabel, his wife.

1917 January 6, New York City Marriage Records Albert Sr. marries Emma Schlig (b. 1880, Albany, NY- ), his third wife.

1917 Draft Registration, June 5,  Albert, Jr., bottling manager for Albert Krumenaker.

Albert, Jr. vital statistics: Age 27, Height 6', Eyes blue, Build Stout, Hair Brown, Not bald.

1920 US Census shows Albert, Sr. at 560 W 165th St with wife Emma (b. 1880, Albany, NY- ) 
while at 510-12 W 166th St. it shows Albert, Jr. (age 30) as still being married to Mabel (nee Rubeor)    (b. 1890, New York).  Jr. lists occupation as "bottling manager".
Curiously, Jr. shows father as French, and mother as Swiss and  Mabel shows her parents are from English speaking Canada. Also living with Jr. and Mabel is Ruth Rubeor, a niece of Mabel [see Rubeor under Krumenaker in 1930 US Census below], age 5.

1925 NYS Census shows Albert, Sr. living with wife, Emma (b. 1878) on 165th St. and Albert, Jr.,  and Mabel and Albert, III (b. 1923, New York) all living at 512 W. 166th St.  This is the last date found for the Krumenaker's at the 166th St. address.
Peter (b. 1894) is now married to Esther (b. 1898) and living in Queens.

There is no accurate information for when the Albert Krumenaker Bottling Company closed. Prohibition was from 1920 to 1933 and many brewers closed their operations during this period.

1927 Albert, Sr. (b. 1864) dies.

1930 US Census shows Mabel, married head of household (husband, not recorded), and her son, Albert G. Krumenaker, Jr. (b. 1923, New York), age 7, living on Brattleboro Rd., Hinsdale, Cheshire, NH. Mabel is living with her mother, Freeda Rubeor, who was born in Sweden (this conflicts with the 1920 US Census which stated her parents were from English speaking Canada). 

Albert III, in an interview, has reported that Mabel divorced Albert, Jr. and he and his mother moved to New Hampshire due to his health (lung ailment).  Albert III was having difficulty breathing in New York City.  Also according to Albert III, Mabel remarried, becoming a Quigley.  She then divorced her second husband and moved back in with Albert Jr. again, but did not marry him.

1940 US Census  shows Albert, Jr. (head of household) age 49, living with son, Albert, III., age 17, and Mabel Quigley, as housekeeper (age 49) in Hinsdale, NH. Albert, Jr. is shown as a bottling plant supervisor. 

1940 AT&T New York Telephone Directory shows no Krumenaker in NYC

1942 Albert, Jr., age 52 registers for the draft for a second time for WWII.

1949, Jan 6, Albert, Jr. dies in NH.

1951 April 25, Albert III marries Kathleen V. Smith.

1952 March 22, Albert III and Kathleen have a child  Karen Krumenaker.

1953 November 30, Albert III and Kathleen have a second child Albert G. Krumenaker (IV).

Sometime between 1953 and 1958 Albert III divorces Kathleen or she dies.

1958, March 23, Albert III marries Elizabeth Myra Roberts

1998 Albert G, IV is living in Keene NH

2016 Albert G, Krumenaker, Jr. (III), age 93, currently lives in Claremont, NH   

last revision 11/22/2016